I had chances of meeting my project mentor three times and obtained practical support regarding various aspects of the work during these meetings. Comparative research questions typically start with one of two phrases: Some of these starting phrases are highlighted in blue text in the examples below: What is the difference in the daily calorific intake of American men and women? Qualitative research is useful in two situations: When research questions need to be sharpened: In the beginning of any study, researchers may only have a rough idea what they want to collect data on and how they can collect that data. So we are interested in how the attitudes towards music piracy differ when pirated music is freely distributed as opposed to when pirated music in purchased. The table below shows some of the most common types of research questions. Descriptive statistics will give you a summary of your data and include measures of averages and variability. What’s the difference between quantitative and qualitative methods? These are the bases of the structured research questions developed and validated. In this final example, the two conditions (i.e., groups) are pirated music that is freely distributed and pirated music that is purchased. Senior High School Practical Research 2 Quarter 1- Module 2 Identifying the Inquiry and Stating the Problem This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public institutions. Published on June 12, 2020 by Pritha Bhandari. Scientific journals are a good place to start. Reliability and validity are both about how well a method measures something: If you are doing experimental research, you also have to consider the internal and external validity of your experiment. Use quantitative research methods such as A/B testing for validating or choosing a design based on user satisfaction scores, perceived usability measures, and/or task performance. Quantitative methodology would best apply to this research problem. Quantitative research is widely used in the natural and social sciences: biology, chemistry, psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, etc. For example, the concept of social anxiety isn’t directly observable, but it can be operationally defined in terms of self-rating scores, behavioral avoidance of crowded places, or physical anxiety symptoms in social situations. You need to identify what this is. Hi Jason, Thanks for your comment and question. As you prepare to write your essay or thesis, use these examples of good and bad research questions to make sure you are on the right track. The study can be reproduced in other cultural settings, times or with different groups of participants. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Questions According to Creswell (2009), quantitative research is a "means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables that can be measured and analyzed using statistical procedures." The most common methods of qualitative research are: Group discussion, interviews face to face, participation or observing a scene. Before you write out the groups you are interested in comparing, you typically need to include some adjoining text (i.e., usually the words between or amongst): Some examples are highlighted in red text below: Once you have these details ? Its limitations include: Using precise and restrictive operational definitions may inadequately represent complex concepts. The example comparative research questions discussed above are written out in full below: In the section that follows, the structure of relationship-based research questions is discussed. Characteristics of Quantitative Research. You could still have research questions. It is important that one of those variables is an independent variable (IV). In survey projects the use of research questions and objectives is more frequent In experiments the use of hypotheses are more frequent Represent comparison between variables relationship between variables Characteristics The testable proposition to be deduced from theory. All relationship-based research questions have at least one independent variable. kason11wd and … Qualitative research collects information that seeks to describe a topic more than measure it. However, sometimes the two groups you are interested in reflect two different conditions, as highlighted by the final example. Research Questions, Hypotheses, ... At the beginning of this chapter you are going to learn about research questions and hypotheses from the perspective of the researcher, which, in the second part of this chapter, ... A researcher spends a great deal of time refining a research idea into a testable research ques-tion. Despite the benefits of quantitative research, it is sometimes inadequate in explaining complex research topics. Both qualitative and quantitative research require research questions. Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. lalynsalaber3967 lalynsalaber3967 15 minutes ago English Junior High School This time i have learned that when stating quantitative research questions lalynsalaber3967 is waiting for your help. You can also assess the reliability and validity of your data collection methods to indicate how consistently and accurately your methods actually measured what you wanted them to. Does working from home increase productivity for people with long commutes. Quantitative Research. How has the average temperature changed globally over the last century? It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses, by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance. Whilst these rules should help you when writing out your research question(s), the main thing you should keep in mind is whether your research question(s) flow and are easy to read. RESEARCH QUESTIONS. Each of these steps is discussed in turn: Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. What are the differences in perceptions towards Internet banking security between adolescents and pensioners? Qualitative research, Creswell posits, is a "means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to social … Quantitative methods allow you to test a hypothesis by systematically collecting and analyzing data, while qualitative methods allow you to explore ideas and experiences in depth. Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. technology use in education -- especially those discussions which occur in developing countries -- continue to permit their research findings to be locked away behind paywalls. What is the difference in the weekly photo uploads on Facebook between British male and female university students? You need to identify these groups. There are six steps required to construct a relationship-based research question: (1) choose your starting phrase; (2) identify the independent variable(s); (3) identify the dependent variable(s); (4) identify the group(s); (5) identify the appropriate adjoining text; and (6) write out the relationship-based research question. Strengths of this approach include: Repeating the study is possible because of standardized data collection protocols and tangible definitions of abstract concepts. The most rigorous form of quantitative research follows from a test of a theory (see Chapter 3) and the specification of research questions or hypotheses that are included in the theory. Research existing literature on the appropriate database related to your topic. With that in mind there are three common types of quantitative research questions: Ask questions of a group of people in-person, over-the-phone or online. Relationship-based research questions typically start with one or two phrases: What is the relationship between gender and attitudes towards music piracy amongst adolescents? Quantitative Approach. What is the relationship between study time and exam scores amongst university students? To test whether an intervention can reduce procrastination in college students, you give equal-sized groups either a procrastination intervention or a comparable task. Most quantitative research falls into one or more of these three categories. To collect quantitative data, you will often need to use operational definitions that translate abstract concepts (e.g., mood) into observable and quantifiable measures (e.g., self-ratings of feelings and energy levels). However, how the dependent variable is written out in a research question and what you call it are often two different things. Quantitative methods can fail if the questions are not framed correctly and not distributed to the right audience. You compare self-ratings of procrastination behaviors between the groups after the intervention. Quantitative research is the opposite of qualitative research, which involves collecting … Pandemics are epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people. You can also use graphs, scatter plots and frequency tables to visualize your data and check for any trends or outliers. Published on In quantitative research, you usually work with at least two variables. you can write out the relationship-based research question in full. Quantitative research questions are generally used to set the scene for an entire study or industry report. Before collecting data, it’s important to consider how you will operationalize the variables that you want to measure. November 27, 2020. All relationship-based research questions have at least one group, but can have multiple groups. Once data is collected, you may need to process it before it can be analyzed. To study college classroom participation, you sit in on classes to observe them, counting and recording the prevalence of active and passive behaviors by students from different backgrounds. June 12, 2020 In mixed-methods research, you use both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods to answer your research question. Deciding whether to use a quantitative or qualitative research method can be difficult, particularly if you aren’t familiar with the problems associated with each. The example relationship-based research questions discussed above are written out in full below: In the previous section, we illustrated how to write out the three types of research question (i.e., descriptive, comparative and relationship-based research questions). First, you use descriptive statistics to get a summary of the data. The answers received for these quantitative survey questions are analyzed and a research report is generated on the basis of this quantitative data. Strong research questions are specific, original, and relevant to society and the scientific community. It is one of the enduring mysteries of life to me why so many researchers who wish to influence public policy discussions on issues related to (e.g.) Quantitative Research Questions THREE RULES for Quantitative Research Questions 1. This time i have learned that when stating quantitative research questions - 7245836 1. Choosing a research question is an essential element of both quantitative and qualitative research.Investigation will require data collection and analysis, and the methodology for this will vary widely. What is the demographic makeup of Singapore in 2020? All relationship-based research questions also have at least one dependent variable. The procedure used in a quantitative research can be repeatedly done to measure the validity of previous results. Quantitative data are collected in order to answer questions of how much of a particular thing exists (i.e., How many cows does Old McDonald have?). Hope you found this article helpful. (2001), as indicated in Figure 4.1. The accuracy of quantitative data to be used for evaluation research depends on how well the sample represents the population, the ease of analysis, and their consistency. Ask your question. The independent and dependent variables must be measured sepa-rately. The research process of this study was adapted and modified from the research process used by Cavana et al. Using inferential statistics, you can make predictions or generalizations based on your data. You also need to identify what this is. Revised on It is often easy to identify groups because they reflect different types of people (e.g., men and women, adolescents and pensioners), as highlighted by the first three examples. Start with a problem statement about the area you want to study, and then create research questions and hypotheses to learn more. Answer: This time, I have learned that when stating quantitative research question, dealt more with the precision and specificity of the problem. Using a t-test to compare the mean ratings of the two groups, you find a significant difference and support for your hypothesis. The research designs for this study were based on exploratory and conclusive research. To assess whether attitudes towards climate change have changed since the 1980s, you collect relevant questionnaire data from widely available. If anything is still unclear, or if you didn’t find what you were looking for here, leave a comment and we’ll see if we can help. Quantitative research is designed to collect cold, hard facts. Get help with your Quantitative research homework. Identify a behavior or occurrence of interest and monitor it in its natural setting. Someone answering this question may want to vote for the Green party, but not have the option available to state that. These questions can all be answered with quantitative data taken from a variety of sources. For quantitative business research it is imperative that the research questions used allow your respondents to answer succinctly. Quantitative research is the opposite of qualitative research, which involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g. Despite standardized procedures, structural biases can still affect quantitative research. The first three examples highlight that while the name of the dependent variable is the same, namely daily calorific intake, the way that this dependent variable is written out differs in each case. The typeof quantitative research question that you use in your dissertation (i.e., descriptive, comparativeand/or relationship-based) needs to be reflected in the way that you write out the research question; that is, the word choice and phrasing that you use when constructing a research question tells the reader whether it is a descriptive, comparative or relationship-based research question. They are unstructured and semi-structured. Quantitative research is based on statistics and numerical day. Frequently asked questions about quantitative research. Your interpretation of the data you collected will be found in the last section of your paper, what is commonly called the "discu… text, video, or audio). Quantitative survey questions are defined as objective questions used to gain detailed insights from respondents about a survey research topic. Typically, this adjoining text includes the words between or amongst, but other words may be more appropriate, as highlighted by the examples in red text below: Once you have these details - (1) the starting phrase, (2) the name of the dependent variable, (3) the name of the groups you are interested in comparing, and (4) any potential adjoining words - you can write out the comparative research question in full. All comparative research questions have a dependent variable. Comparing Quantitative and Qualitative Research 1586 Words | 7 Pages. What’s the difference between reliability and validity? In the examples below, we have identified the groups in the green text. In these two types of research, the results can be generalized to broader populations based on the sampling method used. Data collection is the systematic process by which observations or measurements are gathered in research. For example, survey and test data may need to be transformed from words to numbers. How the dependent variable is written out, perceptions towards Internet banking security, structure of relationship-based research questions. Thanks for reading! Specify the independent and dependent variables 3. Predetermined variables and measurement procedures can mean that you ignore other relevant observations. To do this, you need to tie back your findings to your research questions and/or hypotheses, think about how your findings relate to what you discovered beforehand about the already existing literature, and determine how your findings take the literature or current theory in the field further. Does environmental pollution affect the prevalence of honey bees? You can use quantitative research methods for descriptive, correlational or experimental research. Log in. The data received is statistically valid and can be generalized to the entire user population. You need to identify what this is. In the examples below, we have identified the group(s) in the green text. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations. In the examples below, we have illustrated the name of the dependent variable and highlighted how it would be written out in the blue text. Correlational and experimental research can both be used to formally test hypotheses, or predictions, using statistics. 4.Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. Data from large samples can be processed and analyzed using reliable and consistent procedures through quantitative data analysis. You need to identify this group(s). It will shape your research design. Quantitative research often uses unnatural settings like laboratories or fails to consider historical and cultural contexts that may affect data collection and results. Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing. This research questions serve as the backbone of the research. For example, the concept of mood may be represented with just a number in quantitative research, but explained with elaboration in qualitative research. In the examples that follow, the dependent variable is highlighted in the blue text. Also explore over 6 similar quizzes in this category. 1. Quantitative research is often used to standardize data collection and generalize findings. describe, explain, predict, or control variables and phenomena of interest (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009). Collect data that has been gathered for other purposes e.g., national surveys or historical records. Using formalized and established hypothesis testing procedures means that you have to carefully consider and report your research variables, predictions, data collection and testing methods before coming to a conclusion. Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. Operationalization means turning abstract conceptual ideas into measurable observations. In the examples that follow, the independent variable(s) is highlighted in the purple text. Before you write out the groups you are interested in comparing, you typically need to include some adjoining text. You distribute questionnaires with rating scales to first-year international college students to investigate their experiences of culture shock. Quantitative Research. Join now. Revised on November 27, 2020. relies on the collection and analysis of numerical data to . Once you have run your statistics, you have to figure out what your findings mean or interpret your data. Qualitative research methods have no fixed pattern. Join now. You can state this as a descriptive study and hypothesis generating one. Structure of comparative research questions. Then, to analyze your data, you can use descriptive and/or inferential statistics to answer your research questions. All comparative research questions have at least two groups. Then, after collecting data, analyzing conversations and bringing out insights is also time consuming. Furthermore, the quantitative research problem describes trends and patterns of a phenomenon. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at [email protected] deped.gov.ph. A research question is 'a question that a research project sets out to answer'. Log in. Each of these steps is discussed in turn: Identify the groups you are interested in, Write out the comparative research question. Pritha Bhandari. Results can be compared statistically. The kind of question you use depends on what you want to find out about and the type of research you want to do. You can test your hypothesis or use your sample data to estimate the population parameter. At the undergraduate and master's level, it is likely that your research question will only have one dependent variable. It was formulated principally based on looking at four (4) different phases, which address the research questions at There are five steps required to construct a comparative research question: (1) choose your starting phrase; (2) identify and name the dependent variable; (3) identify the groups you are interested in; (4) identify the appropriate adjoining text; and (5) write out the comparative research question. Each of these steps is discussed in turn. Try this amazing Quantitative Research Designs Quiz Questions quiz which has been attempted 1045 times by avid quiz takers. (1) the starting phrase, (2) the name of the dependent variable, (3) the name of the independent variable, (4) the name of the group(s) you are interested in, and (5) any potential adjoining words ? They Begin with “How”, “What”, or “Why” and can NEVER be answered by a simple Yes or No 2. What is the relationship of career prospects, salary and benefits, and physical working conditions on job satisfaction between managers and non-managers? There are five steps required to construct a comparative research question: (1) choose your starting phrase; (2) identify and name the dependent variable; (3) identify the groups you are interested in; (4) identify the appropriate adjoining text; and (5) write out the comparative research question. Quantitative research. Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings. Next, you perform inferential statistics to test your hypothesis. These good and bad examples will demonstrate the qualities you need for an effective research question. by What are the differences in attitudes towards music piracy when pirated music is freely distributed or purchased? It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations. It is used in many different contexts by academics, governments, businesses, and other organizations. When doing a dissertation at the undergraduate and master's level, it is likely that your research question will only have one or two independent variables, but this is not always the case. One of the underlying tenets of quantitative research is a philosophical A quantitative research question is usually followed by a hypothesis — this is a prediction of what we think our study will find; a statement that answers the initial speculative research question. You find the mean (average) and the mode (most frequent rating) of procrastination of the two groups, and plot the data to see if there are any outliers. Missing data, imprecise measurements or inappropriate sampling methods are biases that can lead to the wrong conclusions. Identify the contribution that each study provides in the context of your research question. Write out the relationship-based research question. Learn the difference between these two forms of data and when you should use them. And hypotheses to learn more exploratory and this time i have learned that stating quantitative research questions research and relevant to and! 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